Constantine the Great coin






Maxentius
A.D. 306- 312

  Maxentius was the son of Maximianus and he was born circa A.D. 279. He married Maximilla, the daughter of Galerius. Maxentius and Maximilla had a son named Romulus who died in 309.

    After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, Maxentius expected to become Caesar, but instead he was given the title of Princeps and semi-retired to Rome. In 306, the inhabitants of Rome rebelled against Galerius, who had issued a recent decree that meant they would lose their tax-free status. The citizens of Rome hailed Maxentius as Augustus. Galerius sent Severus II to reclaim Rome. However, the army of Severus defected over to Maxentius. Severus fled to Ravenna, but eventually surrendered in the hopes of a pardon. Maxentius executed him near Rome on 16 September 307.

    Maxentius asked his father, Maximianus, to come out of retirement. Father and son repelled an attack by Galerius. They formed a brief alliance with Constantine. Constantine married Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus.  However, Maximianus tried to seize power in Rome in April of 308. His attempted coup failed and he fled to Gaul and the protection of his son in law, Constantine. Maximianus later betrayed Constantine also and had to commit suicide in 310- Maxentius, ironically, deified his father and blustered about avenging his death. Maxentius was all alone and surrounded by enemies.

    After the death of Severus and defeat of Galerius, Maximianus and Galerius asked Diocletian to come out of retirement for a brief time. They met at Carnuntum, near Vienna. Licinius became Augustus in place of Severus and Constantine was officially recognized as Caesar. All agreed that Maxentius was a usurper and needed to be dealt with.

    In 308, Maxentius also lost the province of Africa when local troops there hailed Alexander of Carthage Augustus. This was a huge blow to Maxentius, because Africa was the breadbasket of Rome. This also made Alexander an ally of Constantine, at least as far as they both had a common enemy- Maxentius. There is a milestone in Africa that only mentions two Augusti- Constantine and Domitius Alexander. The army of Maxentius went to Carthage circa 311 and put Alexander to death. The Imperial mint of Carthage had probably already transferred to Ostia prior to the usurpation of Alexander, this would account for the crudeness of his coins from Carthage- he did not have qualified mint personnel.

    On October 28, 312 A.D., Maxentius met Constantine outside of Rome. Maxentius could have stayed in heavily fortified Rome, but the citizens of Rome were restless and Maxentius was worried. He consulted the Sibylline Books, where he learned "on October 28 an enemy of the Romans will perish" unfortunately for Maxentius, he assumed the enemy was Constantine. Ancient accounts vary- a pontoon bridge collapsed or a linchpin was pulled out early causing it to collapse, and Maxentius, along with many of his soldiers, drowned. Constantine’s soldiers recovered his body and paraded his head through Rome on a pike; and later it was sent to Africa.










Ticinum

Maxentius

A.D. 308- 309

24x25mm   5.9gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG CONS, laureate bust facing left in imperial mantle, left hand holding eagle-tipped scepter.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, right hand holding globe, left scepter; knobs as acroteria, pediment empty.

In ex. TT

RIC VI Ticinum 103


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Ticinum 103





Maxentius

A.D. 308-309

22x24mm    5.7gm

IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG; Laureate head right.

CONSERV-VRB SVAE; Victory standing left, palm in left, right crowning Roma seated facing, head left, in tetrastyle temple, globe in right hand, scepter in left, empty pediment, knobs as acroteria.

In ex. PT

RIC VI Ticinum 108


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Ticinum 108





Maxentius

A.D. 308-309

25x26mm    6.3 gm

IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG; Laureate head right.

CONSERV-VRB SVAE; Victory standing left, palm in left, right crowning Roma seated facing, head left, in tetrastyle temple, globe in right hand, scepter in left, empty pediment, knobs as acroteria.

In ex. TT

RIC VI Ticinum 108


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Ticinum 108





Aquileia

Maxentius

A.D. 307

24x27mm    6.8gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG; Laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE; Roma seated l. on shield within tetrastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius in military attire, standing l. and holding sceptre; between them, a seated captive, wolf and twins in pediment, victories as acroteria.

In ex AQP

RIC VI Aquileia 113


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Aquileia 113

Maxentius

A.D. 307

25mm    6.7gm

IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRBSVAE, Roma seated left on shield within tetrastyle temple, holding scepter and handing globe to Maxentius, standing right and holding scepter, with foot on bound captive seated right; Victories as acroteria, she-wolf and twins in pediment.

In ex. AQP

RIC VI Aquileia 113


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Aquileia 113


Maxentius

A.D. 308- 310

24x25mm     7.0gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in hexastyle temple holding globe & sceptre, wreath in pediment.

In ex. AQS

RIC VI Aquileia 116



Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Aquileia 113


Maxentius

20 April 308

24mm 5.3gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG CONS, laureate bust facing left in imperial mantle, left hand holding eagle-tipped scepter.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, right hand holding globe, left scepter; shield by side; knobs as acroteria and crescent in pediment.

In ex. AQS

RIC VI Aquileia 124

 

The obverse legend on this coin ends with CONS meaning Maxentius was Consul for the first time; and this happened on 20 April 308.



Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Aquileia 124

Maxentius

Jan 309

24x25mm   7.1gm

IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG CONS II, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, right hand holding eagle-tipped scepter.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, right hand holding globe, left scepter; shield by side; knobs as acroteria and crescent in pediment.

In ex. AQS

RIC VI Aquileia 125

 

The obverse legend on this coin ends with CONS II meaning Maxentius was Consul for the second time; and this happened in Jan 309.



Maxentius CONSERV
                      VRB SVAE Aquileia 125



Rome

Maxentius

A.D. 308- 310

22mm     5.9gm

IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in hexastyle temple holding globe & sceptre, wreath in pediment.

In ex. RBS

RIC VI Rome 210


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Rome 210

Maxentius

A.D. 308- 310

25mm     5.4gm

IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in hexastyle temple holding globe & sceptre, wreath in pediment, Victories as acroteria.

In ex. RBS

RIC VI Rome 210


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Rome 210


Maxentius

A.D. 308- 310

25x26mm     8.1gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in hexastyle temple holding globe & sceptre, wreath in pediment.

In ex. RBS

RIC VI Rome 210


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Rome 210

Maxentius

A.D. 308- 310

24x25mm     7.3gm

IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in hexastyle temple holding globe & sceptre, wreath in pediment, Victories as acroteria.

In ex. RBS

RIC VI Rome 210


Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Rome 210


Maxentius

A.D. 308- 310

IMP C MAXENTIUS P F AVG, laureate head right.

CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in hexastyle temple holding globe & sceptre, wreath in pediment.

In ex. RBT

RIC VI Rome 210



Maxentius CONSERV VRB SVAE Rome 210

Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

Half follis

21x22mm  3.0gm

MAXENTI-VS P F AVG; laureate head right.

VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N; Victory standing right, left foot on base of cippus supporting shield inscribing VOT X, captive seated left.

In ex. RT

RIC VI Rome 227


Maxentius VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N Rome 227

Maxentius

A.D. 310- 312

Æ half-follis

16x17mm   2.2 gm

MAXENTI-VS P F AVG; Laureate head right.

VOT/ Q Q / MVL /X in four lines within laurel wreath.

In ex. RS

RIC VI Rome 237


Maxentius CONSERV VRB
                      SVAE Rome 210




Ostia

 

Maxentius

A.D. 309

24x25mm     6.4gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laureate head right.

AETERNITAS AVG N; Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer left arm and holding bridled horse, she-wolf with twins between them.

In ex. MOSTA

RIC VI Ostia 16




Maxentius AETERNITAS AVG N Ostia 16


 

Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

23x24mm     6.9gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laureate head right.

AETERNITAS AVG N; Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer left arm and holding bridled horse, she-wolf with twins between them.

In ex. MOSTP

RIC VI Ostia 35




Maxentius AETERNITAS AVG N Ostia 35


Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

24x27mm     5.6gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laureate head right.

AETERNITAS AVG N; Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer left arm and holding bridled horse, she-wolf with twins between them.

In ex. MOSTS

RIC VI Ostia 35


Maxentius AETERNITAS AVG N Ostia 35

Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

24x25mm     5.8gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laureate head right.

AETERNITAS AVG N; Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre with outer left arm and holding bridled horse, she-wolf with twins between them.

In ex. MOSTS

RIC VI Ostia 35


Maxentius AETERNITAS AVG N Ostia 35

 

Maxentius

A.D. 309-312

23x24mm    6.3gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laureate head right.

FIDES MILITVM AVG N; Fides standing left with standard in each hand.

In ex. MOSTS

RIC VI Ostia 45



Maxentius FIDES MILITVM AVG N Ostia 45


Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

22x25mm  6.1gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG; laureate bust right.

VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N; Victory advancing left with wreath & palm.

In ex. MOSTP

RIC VI Ostia 54




Maxentius VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N Ostia 54



Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

24x23mm 6.7gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate bust right /

VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N, Victory advancing left with wreath & palm.

In ex. MOSTT

RIC VI Ostia 54



Maxentius VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N Ostia 54


 

Maxentius

A.D. 309- 312

20x21mm  3.1gm

IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG; helmeted, cuirassed, bust left, spear over right shoulder, shield on left arm.

VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N; Victory standing right, left foot on base of cippus supporting shield inscribing VOT X, captive seated left.

In ex. MOSTS

RIC VI Ostia 61




Maxentius VICTORIA AETERNA AVG N Ostia 61




Carthage


Maxentius

A.D. 307

25x26mm    7.5gm

IMP MAXENTIVS P F AVG; laureate head right.

CONSERVATO-RES KART SVAE; Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits, within hexastyle temple with unadorned pediment;

In ex. PKΓ

RIC VI Carthage 60