Reverse Legend Translations
Reverse legend
          translations for Constantine the Great

These translations are from Roman Bronze Coins: From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D. by Victor "Tory" Failmezger. He has graciously given his consent for me to reproduce his work here. The translations were originally checked by Michael Braunlin who is assistant head of the Classics Library at University of Cincinnati. I highly recommend this book for anyone who collects this time period.

The legends below are only for Constantine the Great!

1. For the purpose of this list, the title Augustus is often interchanged with the title Emperor.
2. When the title is listed as AVG, this refers to only one Emperor even if there were several who shared this title at the same time. If it is listed as AVGG or AVGGG, it represents two or three Emperors. The obverse does not follow this convention since it is generally issued in the name of one ruler only. The same applies for N orNN (Noster-our) and for CAES and CAESS, which stands for one or two Caesars.
3. Many of the legends have VOT or VOTIS attached: if that is the case, add on to the phrase the appropriate number of vows.
4. Sometimes legends will have an honorific associated with them such as DN ("Our Lord") and sometimes not; it is best to look for several combinations if the legend is not immediately found.
5. Legend variations are found in parenthesis.



AETERNA PIETAS- Everlasting Piety.
ADVENTVS AVG (G)(N)(NN)- The arrival of our Emperor(s).
AETERNITAS AVG N- The immortality of our Emperor.
AETERNA(E) MEMORIA(E)- To Eternal memory.
ALAMANNIA DEVICTA- On the occasion of the Alemannia being conquered.
APOLLONI SANCT(O)- To holy Apollo.


BEATA TRANQVILLITAS- Blessed peace (calm).
BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS- To the good guardian spirit of the pious Emperor.


CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE- Renown of the state.
COMITI AVG(G)(NN)- To the companion of our Emperor(s).
CONCORDIA AVGG (NN)- Harmony of our Emperor(s).
CONCORDIA DD NN- Harmony of our Lords.
CONCORDIA IMPERII- Harmony of the empire.
CONCORDIA M FELIX DD NN- The fortunate harmony of the soldiers of our Lords.
CONCORDIA MILIT(VM)- The harmony of the soldiers.
CONCORDIA PERPET DD NN- The everlasting harmony of our lords.
CONSECRATIO- Consecration.
CONSERVATOR(I)(ES) AFRICA SVAE (AVG N)- Our Emperor(s) (in honor of), savior of his (their) Africa.
CONSERVATOR(I)(ES) KART SVAE (AVG N)- Our Emperor(s) (in honor of), savior of his (their) Carthage.
CONSERV(ATORES) VRB SVAE- In honor of the savior(s) of his (their) city.
CONSVL VII PP PROCOS- Consul for the seventh time, father of the Country and Proconsul.
CONSTANTINI AVGVSTI VOTIS XX- 20 year (vicennalia) vows of Constantine the Emperor.
CONSTANTINO P AVG BRP NAT- To Constantine, prince, Emperor, born for the welfare of the State.


DN CONSTANTINI (MAX) AVG(VSTI)- Of our Lord, Constantine, the greatest Emperor.


FELICITAS AVGG NN- The happiness of our Emperors.
FIDES MILITVM (AVG N)- The loyalty of (our Emperor's) soldiers
FVNDAT PACIS- To the founder of peace.


GENIO AVGG ET CAESS(ARVM) NN- To the spirit of our Emperors and Caesars.
GENIO AVGVSTI- To the spirit of the Emperor.
GENIO CAESARIS- To the spirit of the Caesar.
GENIO CIVITATIS- To the spirit of the city.
GENIO EXERCITVS- To the spirit of the army.
GENIO FIL AVGG- To the spirit of the son of the Emperors.
GENIO IMPERATORIS- To the spirit of the Emperor.
GENIO POP(VLI) ROM(ANI)- To the spirit of the Roman people.
GLORIA EXERCITVS- The glory of the army.
GLORIA EXERCITVS KART- The glory of the army at Carthage.
GLORIA PERPET- Everlasting glory.
GLORIA ROMANORVM- The glory of the Romans.


HAEC VOTA MVLT ANN- These vows (undertaken) for many years.
HERCVLI CONSERVAT(ORI)(CAES)- To Hercules savior (of the Caesar).
HERCVLI VICTORI- To Hercules, the victor.


IOM ET FORT CONSER DD NN (AVG)(ET CAES) (NOB CAESS)- To Jupiter powerful and great, (Iovi Optimo Maximo), and Fortune, preservers of our Lords Augustus and Caesar.
IOVI CONSERVAT (ORI)(AVG(G) (NN) (CAESS)- To Jupiter, the savior of our Emperors (Caesars).
ISIS FARIA- Isis, of the Island of Pharos.
IVST VENER MEMOR- To (his) memory, justly to be remembered.


LIBERATOR ORBIS- To the liberator of the world.
LIBERATORI VRBIS SVAE- To the liberator of his city.


MARS PACIF- Mars, the peacemaker.
MARS VICTOR- Mars, the victor.
MARTI COMITI AVG N- To Mars, comrade of our Emperor.
MARTI CONSER(VATORI) (AVG)(N)- To Mars, the savior of our Emperor.
MARTI PACIFERO AVG N- To Mars, the peacemaker of our Emperor.
MARTI PATR SEMP VICTORI- To our father Mars, always victorious.
MARTI PATRI CONSER(VATORI)- To Mars, the saving father.
MARTI PATRI PROPVG(NATORI)- To Mars, the defending father.
MARTI PROPVGNATORI- To Mars, the defender.
MEMORIA DIVI CONSTANTI- To the memory of the divine Constantius.
MEMORIA FELIX- Happy memory.
MEMORIAE AETERNAE- In honor of everlasting memory.
MVLTIS X- Vows repeated for 10 years (decennalia).
MVLTIS XX- Vows repeated for twenty years (vicennalia).
MVLTIS XXX- Vows repeated for thirty years (tricennalia).
MVLT NATAL FEL- Many happy births.


PACI PERPET XII- In honor of eternal peace.
PAX PERPETVA- Eternal peace.
PERPETVA VIRTVS- Eternal strength.
PERPETVITAS AVGG- The perpetuity of the Emperors.
PLVRA NATAL FEL- May there be many happy births.
PR (POPVLVS ROMANVS)- Roman people.
PRINCIPI IVVENT BRP NAT- To the Prince of Youth, born for the good of the state.
PRINCI(PI) IVVENTVT(IS)- In honor of the Prince of Youth.
PROVIDENTIAE (AVGG) (CAESS)- In honor of the foresight of the Emperors (Caesars).


RECVPERATOR VRB(IS) SVAE- To the recovery of his city.
REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERIT(ORVM)- To the retirement of the best (Emperors).
RESTITVTOR VRBIS SVAE- Restorer of his city (meaning Rome).
ROMAE AETER- To everlasting Rome.
ROMAE AETER (AVGG)- To the everlasting Rome of the Emperors.
ROMAE AETERNAE XV- To everlasting Rome, fifteen yearly vows.
ROMAE RESTITVTAE- To Rome, having been restored.


SACRA MONETA VRB AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR- The sacred money of the city of our Augusti and Caesars.
SAECVLI FELIC(ITAS) AVG (N)- Happy times of the (our) Emperor.
SALVIS AVG ET CAESS (AVCTA) (FEL) KART- With the Emperor and Caesars being safe, happy Carthage is strengthened.
SAPIENT PRINCIP- Wisdom of the Prince.
SARMATIA DEVICTA- On the occasion of Sarmatia being conquered.
SECVRIT PERPET DD NN- Eternal security of our Emperors.
SECVRITAS AVGG- The security of the Emperors.
SOLI  INVICTO COMITI- To my companion the invincible sun (god).
SPES PVBLIC- Public hope.
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI- The senate and people of Rome to the best of Princes.


TRB P CONS IIII PP PROCONSVL- Tribune, Consul for the fourth time, Father of the Country, Proconsul.


VBERTAS SAECVLI- The fruitfulness (abundance) of the age.
VICTORIA(AE) AET(ERNA) AVG(GG) (N)NN- Eternal victory of our Emperors.
VICTORIA AVG(G) (N)(NN)- Victory of (the) (our) Emperor(s).
VICTORIA AVGG (AVGVSTORVM)- Victory of the Emperors.
VICTORIA LAET(AE) PRINC PERP- Joyous (well-earned) victory to the eternal Prince.
VICTORIAE LIBERAE- In honor of victory, now free (liberated).
VIRT CONSTANTINI AVG- Valor of Constantine, Emperor.
VIRT EXERC- Valor of the army.
VIRT EXERCIT GALL XVI- Valor of the army of Gaul.
VIRT PERP CONSTANTINI AVG- The unfailing (perpetual) valor of Constantine, the Emperor.
VIRTVS(TI) AVG(G) (N)(NN) (ET CAESS NN)- The valor (in honor of) of our Emperors (Caesars).
VIRTVS CONSTANTINI CAES- The valor of Caesar Constantine.
VIRTVS(TI) EXERCIT(VS)(VM)- In honor of the valor of the army.
VIRTVS MILITVM (DD NN)- The valor of the soldiers (of our lords).
VIRTVS PERPETVA AVG- The everlasting valor of the Emperor.
VN MR (VENERANDAE MEMORIAE)- In honor of venerated memory.
VTILITAS PVBLICA- Public utility (common good).
VOT- Votive (vow).

last modified on 28 Aug 2014