Constantine the Great

Articles

        On this page I will be adding links to articles that deal mainly with numismatics, specifically fourth century; however there are also a few other topics. I will eventually add all the articles that I have, if you have some scholarly on-topic articles in PDF format and would like to help, email me . Please note that some of these articles are old and may be dated as scholarship always moves forward. A good example of this is Hill's "Barbarous Imitations of Fourth-Century Roman Coins" in which he wrote that these coins were struck in the 5th century. A few years later hoard evidence demonstrated that these coins were contemporary with official coinage and Hill revised his thesis on these coins. I believe it is important to read these earlier works though, so that one may participate in the historical debate. If you enjoyed the articles, please visit my forum for Late Roman Bronze Coins.


Journal abbreviations


Adelson, Howard. The Bronze Alloys: The Bronze Alloys of the Coinage of the Later Roman Empire.”ANSMN 6 (1954) : 111- 129.

Alföldi, Andreas. Hasta-Summa Imperii: The Spear as Embodiment of Sovereignty in Rome.” AJA 59 (1963) : 1-27.

________. “The Helmet of Constantine with the Christian Monogram.JRS  22 (1932) : 9-23.

________. On the Foundation of Constantinople: A Few Notes.” JRS  37 (1947) : 10-16.

________.Cornuti: a Teutonic Contingent in the Service of Constantine the Great and its Decisive Role in the Battle at the Milvian Bridge.”DOP 13 (1959) : 169-183.

________. “Die Donaubrücke Constantins des Grossen und verwandte historische Darstellungen auf spätrömischen Münzen
ZfE 36 (1926) : 161- 167.


Aitchison, N. B.Roman Wealth, Native Ritual: Coin Hoards Within and Beyond Roman Britain.” WorldArch 20, no. 2 (October 1988) : 270-284.

Armstrong, Frederick H.The Ihnasyah Hoard Re-Examined.” Phoenix 19 (1965) : 51-60.

Austin, N. J. E.Constantine and Crispus, A.D. 326.Acta Classica 23 (1980) : 133-138.

Bagnall, R. S.Fourth Century Prices: New Evidence and Further Thoughts.” ZPE  76 (1989): 37-43.

Barnes, Timothy D.Legislation Against the Christians.” JRS  58 (1968) : 32-50.

________. “Origen, Aquila, and Eusebius.” HSCP  74 (1970) : 313-316.

________. “Lactantius and Constantine.” JRS  63 (1973) : 29-46.

________. “Publilius Optatianus Porfyrius.” AJP  96, no. 2 (Summer 1975) : 173-186.

________. “Two Senators under Constantine.” JRS  65 (1975) : 40-49.

________. “Sossianus Hierocles and the Antecedents of the ‘Great Persecution’.” HSCP 80 (1976) : 239-252.

________.  “Constans and Gratian in RomeHarvard Studies in Classical Philology  79 (1975) : 325-333.

________.  “Structure and Chronology in Ammianus, Book 14.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology  92 (1989) : 413-422.

________. “Constantine's Prohibition of Pagan Sacrifice.” AJP 105, no. 1 (Spring 1984) : 69-72.

________ . “Constantine and the Christians of Persia.” JRS  75 (1985) : 126-136.

________. “Himerius and the Fourth Century.” CP  82, no. 3 (July 1987) : 206-225.

________. “Statistics and the Conversion of the Roman Aristocracy.” JRS  85 (1995) : 135-147.

________. “The Wife of Maximinus.” CP  94, no. 4 (October 1999) : 459-460.


Barrandon, J.
, J. P. Callu, and C. Brenot.
The Analysis of Constantinian Coins (A.D. 313-40) By Non-Destructive Californium 252
ActivationAnalysis.”   Archaeometry 19 (1977) : 173-186.


Baynes, Norman H
. “The Decline of the Roman Power in Western Europe. Some Modern Explanations.JRS  33 (1943) : 29-35.

________. “Three Notes on the Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine.” JRS  15 (1925) : 195-208.

________. “Two Notes on the Great Persecution.” CQ  18 (July-October 1924) : 189-194.

________. “The Date of the Composition of the Historia Augusta.” The Classical Review  vol 38, no 7/8 ( Nov-Dec 1924) : 165-169.



Bellinger, Alfred
. “A Constantinian Hoard from Attica.” AJA vol. 32, no. 4 (Oct- Dec 1928) : 496- 501


Boon, George C.The Roman Temple at Brean Down, Somerset, and the Dating of Minimissimi.”  NC 7 vol 1 (1961) : 191- 1897.


Bowersock, G. W.From Emperor to Bishop: The Self-Conscious Transformation of Political Power in the Fourth Century A.D.CP  81(Oct 86) 298-307.

________. “A Report on Arabia Provincia.” JRS  vol 61 ( 1971) : 219- 242.


Bradbury, Scott. “Constantine and the Problem of Anti-Pagan Legislation in the Fourth Century.” CP  89, no. 2 (April 1994) : 120-139.


Brogan, Olwen. “Trade between the Roman Empire and the Free Germans.” JRS vol 26, pt 2 (1936) : 195-222.



Brothers, A.J.Diocletian's Palace at Split.” Greece & Rome 2nd series, vol 19, no. 2 (Oct 1972) : 175-186.


Brown, Peter Lamont
.
The Later Roman Empire.” The Economic History Review 20, no. 2 (August 1967) : 327-343.

________ .Christianity and Local Culture in Late Roman Africa.” JRS  58 (1968) : 85-95.

________ .The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity.” JRS  61 (1971) : 80-101.

________. The Diffusion of Manichaeism in the Roman Empire.” JRS  59, no 1/2 (1969) : 92- 103.

________. The Saint as Exemplar in Late Antiquity.” Representations  no 2 ( Spring 1983) : 1- 25.


Brubaker, Leslie and Helen Tobler. “The Gender of Money: Byzantine Empressess on Coins (324- 802).” Gender & History vol 12, no 3 (Nov 2000): 572- 594.


Bruun, Christer. “The Thick Neck of the Emperor Constantine. Slimy Snails and ‘Quellenforschung’.Historia  44, no. 4 (1995) : 459 – 480.

Bruun, Patrick. Some Dynastic Bronze Coins of Constantine the Great.” Eranos  53 (1955) : 193- 198.

________. “The Christian Signs on the Coins of Constantine.” Arctos  3 (1962) : 5- 35.

________. “The Heraclean Coinage of Maximinus Daza: A Drastic Proposal.” Studies in Ancient History and Numismatics Presented to Rudi Thomsen.
                     Aarhus,Denmark: Aarhus University Press (1988) : 179-194.

________. “Gloria Romanorum.” Studia in honorem Iiro Kajanto. Helsinki: Classical Association of Finland (1985) : 22-31.

________. “The Victorious Signs of Constantine: A Reappraisal.” NC  157 (1997) : 41-59.

________. “Site Finds and Hoarding Behaviour.” Scripta Nummaria Roman. Essays Presented to Humphrey Sutherland. (1978) : 114-123.

________. “Quantitative Analysis of Hoarding in Periods of Coin Deterioriation.” PACT  5 (1981) : 355-364.

________. “The Battle of the Milvian Bridge: The Date Reconsidered.” Hermes 88 (1960) : 361- 370.

________. “Two Facets of Ancient Monetary Economy: Celtic Imitations and Roman Rigid Formality.” Arctos 30 (1996) : 21-31.

________. “Portrait of a Conspirator, Constantine’s Break with the Tetrarchy.” Arctos 10 (1976) : 5-23.

________. “Notes on the Transmission of Imperial Images in Late Antiquity.” Studia romana in honorem Petri Krarup septuagenarii.  (1976) : 122- 131.

________. “Roman Imperial Administration as Mirrored in the Fourth Century Coinage.” Eranos  60 (1962) : 93-100.

________. “The Consecration Coins of Constantine the Great.” Arctos 1 (1954) : 19-31.

________. “Some Dynastic Bronze Coins of Constantine the Great.” Eranos  53 (1955) : 193- 198.

________. “The Roman Census and Romanization under AugustusStudies in the Romanization of Etruria. Rome: G. Bardi (1975) : 438-503.

________. “Coins and History.” Ancient History Matters. Studies Presented to Jens Erik Skydsgaard on His Seventieth Birthday. (2002) : 259-265.

________. “Constantine's Change of Dies Imperii.” Arctos  9 (1975) : 11-29.


Burgess, R.W.THE SUMMER OF BLOOD. The "Great Massacre" of 337 and the Promotion of the Sons of Constantine.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 62, 2008.

________ .  “Principes Cum Tyrannis: Two Studies on the Kaisergeschichte and Its Tradition.” CQ 43, vol. 2 (1993) : 491-500.


Burn, A.R.  Procopius and the Isle of Ghosts.” English Historical Review 70 (1955): 258- 261.


Burnett, Andrew. “Clipped Siliquae and the End of Roman Britain.” Britannia vol 15 (1984) : 163- 168.


Bursche, Aleksander. “Circulation of Roman Coinage in Northern Europe in Late Antiquity.” Histoire & mesure XVII (2002).

________ .  “Relations Between the Late Roman World and Barbarian Europe in Light of Coin FindsXIV International Economic History Congress, Helsinki, 2006.


Bury, J. B.The Provincial List of Verona.”  JRS 13 (1923) : 127- 151.


Cameron, Averil. “Constantinus Christianus.” JRS  73 (1983) : 184-190.


Carson, R. A. G., and J. P. C. Kent. “Constantinian Hoards and Other Studies in the Later Roman Bronze Coinage.” NC  16 (1956) : 83-161.


Charlesworth, M.P.  Pietas and Victoria: The Emperor and the Citizen.” JRS 33, parts 1 & 2 (1943) : 1-10.

Collis, John. “A Typology of Coin Distributions.” World Archaeology vol 13 no 1 (June 1981) : 122- 128.


Cope, L. H. The Composition of 35 Roman Bronze Coins of the Period A.D. 284- 363.”  Historical Metallurgy1 (1967) : 1- 6.

________. The Metallurgical Examination of a Debased Silver Coin of Maximinus Daza Issued by Constantine I.” Archaeometry 15 (1973) : 221-228.

________. Diocletian's Price Edict and Second Coinage Reform in the Light of Recent Discoveries.” NC 17 (1977) : 220-226.


Cullhed, Matts. “Maxentius as princeps.” OpRom 17 (1989) :  9-19.

de Ste. Croix, G. E. M.Why Were the Early Christians Persecuted?” Past & Present 26 (Nov 1963) : 6-38.

Deraisme, Beck, Pilon and Barrandon. “A Study of the Silvering Process of the Gallo- Roman Coins Forged During the Third Century AD.” Archaeometry 48, 3 (2006): 469- 480.



Downey, Glanville. “Education in the Christian Roman Empire: Christian and Pagan Theories under Constantine and His Successors.” Speculum vol 32, no 1 (Jan 1957) : 48-61.


Drake, H.A. What Eusebius Knew: The Genesis of the Vita Constantini.” CP  83, no. 1 (January 1988) : 20-38.

________. “Lambs into Lions: Explaining Early Christian Intolerance.” PastPres 153. (November 1996) : 3-36.

________. “Constantine and Consensus.” Church History  64, no.1 (1995) : 1-15.

________. “Policy and Belief in Constantine's Oration to the Saints.” Studia Patristica 19 (1989) : 45-51.

________. “Suggestions of Date in Constantine's Oration to the Saints.” AJP  106, no. 3 (Autumn 1985) : 335-349.


Eadie, John. “The Development of Roman Mailed Cavalry.” JRS vol 57, no. 1/2 (1967) : 161-173.


Edmondson, J. C.Mining in the Later Roman Empire and beyond: Continuity or Disruption?JRS 79 (1989) : 84-102.


Ehrhardt, Christopher. “Monumental Evidence for the Date of Constantine's First War against Licinius.” Ancient World 23 (1992) : 87-94.


Elliot, T. G.
  “Constantine's Conversion. Do We Really Need It?” Phoenix  41 (1987) : 420-438.

________.  “Constantine's Early Religious Development.” Journal of Roman History 15 (1989) : 283-291.

________. “Constantine's Explanation of His Career.” Byzantion  2 (1992) : 212-234.

________. “The Language of Constantine's Propaganda.” TAPA 120 (1990) : 349-353.


Elsner, Jan. “The Itinerarium Burdigalense: Politics and Salvation in the Geography of Constantine's Empire.” JRS  90 (2000) : 181-195.

Epstein, Jeremiah. “Pre-Columbian Old World Coins in America: An Examination of the Evidence.” Current Anthropolgy  vol 21, no 1 (Feb 1980) : 1- 20.


Erim, Kenan T., Joyce Reynolds, and Michael Crawford. “Diocletian's Currency Reform: A New Inscription.” JRS  61 (1971) : 171-177.


Fowden, Garth. “The Last Days of Constantine: Oppositional Versions and Their Influence.” JRS 84 (1994) : 146-170



Frantz, Alison M. “The Provenance of the Open Rho in the Christian Monograms.” AJA  33 (January- March 1929) : 10-26.


Frend, W. H. C.The Failure of the Persecutions in the Roman Empire.” PastPres 16 (November 1959) : 10-30.



________.
Pagans, Christians and the 'Barbarian Conspiracy' of A. D. 367 in Roman Britain.” Britain 23 (1992) : 121-131.


Frothingham, A. L. Who Built the Arch of Constantine? Its History from Domitian to Constantine.” AJA 16, no.2 (July- September 1912) : 368-386.

________. “Who Built the Arch of Constantine?  IV.  The Eight Medallions of Domitian.” AJA 19, no.4 (Oct- December 1915) : 367-384.

________. Diocletian and Mithra in the Roman Forum.” AJA vol 18, no 2  (Apr – Jun 1914) : 146-155.


Georgacas, Demetrius John. “The Names of Constantinople.” TAPA  78 (1947) : 347-367.


Goffart, Walter. “Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians.” AHR  86, no. 2 (April 1981) : 275-306.


Gray, E. W.The Roman Eastern Limes from Constantine to Justinian: Perspectives and Problems.” PACA 12 (1973) : 24- 40.


Grégoire, H.About Licinius’ Fiscal and Religious Policy.” Byzantion 13 (1938) : 551- 560.


Guthrie, P. “The Execution of Crispus.” Phoenix 20, no. 4 (1966) : 325- 331.


Harl, Kenneth W.Marks of Value on Tetrarchic Nummi and Diocletian's Monetary Policy.” Phoenix 39, no. 3 (1985) : 263- 275.


Harries, Jill. “The Roman Imperial Quaestor from Constantine to Theodosius II.” JRS  78 (1988) : 148-172.


Harrison, Evelyn B.The Constantinian Portrait.” DOP  21 (1967) : 79-96


Hendy, M.Mint and Fiscal Administration under Diocletian, His Colleagues and His Successors: A.D. 305- 324.” JRS  62 (1972) : 75- 82.


Hill, P. V.Barbarous Imitations of Fourth-Century Roman Coins.” NC 10 (1950) : 233- 270.


Hoey, Allan. “Official Policy towards Oriental Cults in the Roman Army.” TAPA 70 (1939) : 456-481.


Howgego, Christopher. "The Supply and Use of Money in the Roman 200 B.C. to A.D. 300." JRS 82 (1992): 1- 31.


Huvelin, Helene. “Les Deux Emissions Londoniennes.” NZ 101 (1990) 29-50.


Isaac, Benjamin. “The Meaning of the Terms Limes and Limitanei.” JRS 78 (1988): 125-147.


Jones, A. H. M. The Origin and Early History of the Follis.” JRS  49 (1959) : 34-38.

________.Census Records of the Later Roman Empire.” JRS  43 (1953) : 49-64.

________. “Slavery in the Ancient World.” The Economic History Review vol 9, no 2 (1956) : 185- 199.

________. “Inflation Under the Roman Empire.” The Economic History Review vol 5, no 3 (1953) : 293- 318.

________. “The Roman Civil Service (Clerical and Sub-Clerical Grades).” JRS vol  39, parts 1 & 2 (1949) : 38- 55.

________. & T. C. Skeat.Notes on the Genuineness of the Constantinian Documents in Eusebius's Life of Constantine.JEH  5 (1954) : 196-200.


Jordan, David P. “Gibbon's ‘Age of Constantine’ and the Fall of Rome.” History and Theory 8, no. 1 (1969) : 71-96.

Kent, J. P. C.  Anglo-Saxon Coins; studies presented to F.M. Stenton on the occasion of his 80th Birthday, 17 May, 1960.



Keyes, Clinton Walker. “The Date of the Laterculus Veronensis.” CP  11, no. 2 (April 1916): 196-201.


King, C. E.The Alloy Content of Folles and Imitations from the Woodeaton Hoard.” PACT 1 (1977) : 86-100.

King, C. E.
, and A. Spaer. “A Hoard of Coins from Northern Sinai.NC  17 (1977) : 64-74.


Kraemer, Casper J., and Theodore G. Miles. “An Early Fourth Century Hoard from Egypt: Constantine I.”  ANSMN  5 (1952) : 65-88.


MacCormack, S.Roma, Constantinopolis, the Emperor, and His Genius.” CQ  25, no. 1 (May 1975) : 131-150.


Mackay, Christopher S.Lactantius and the Succession to Diocletian.” CP  94, no. 2. (April 1999) : 198-209.

MacMullen, Ramsay. Constantine and the Miraculous.” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies  9 (1968) : 81- 96.

________. “Personal Power in the Roman Empire.” AJP 107, no. 4 (Winter 1986) : 512-524.


Malosse, Pierre-Louis. “Libanius on Constantine Again.” CQ  47, no. 2 (1997) : 519-524.

Matthews, Victor. “Some Puns on Roman 'Cognomina'.” Greece & Rome 2nd series, vol 20, no 1 (Apr 1973): 20-24.


Mattingly, Harold.Hoards of Roman Coins Found in Britain: And a Coin Survey of the Roman Province.” JRS 22 part 1 (1932) : 88-95.

________.Ancient Coins and the Classics.” Greece & Rome vol 1 no 2 (Feb 1932): 74- 78.

________.TheFirst_Age of Roman Coinage.” JRS vol 35, parts 1 & 2 (1945): 65- 77.

Metcalf, D. M.What Has Been Achieved Through the Application of Statistics to Numismatics?” PACT  5 (1981) : 3-24.

Milne, J. G.The Shops of the Roman Mint of Alexandria.” JRS  8 (1918) : 154-178.

________. “A Hoard of Constantinian Coins from Egypt.” Journal international d’ archéologie numismatique 16 (1914) : 1-27.

________. “Roman Literary Evidence on the Coinage.” JRS  28 (1938) : 70-74.

________. “Two Roman Hoards of Coins from Egypt.” JRS  10 (1920) : 169-184.

________. “Woodeaton Coins.” JRS  21 (1931) : 101-109.


Mitchell, Stephen
. “Maximinus and the Christians in A.D. 312: A New Latin Inscription.” JRS  78 (1988) : 105-124.


Moisil, Delia. “The Danube Limes and the Barbaricum (294-498 A.D.) A Study In Coin Circulation.” Histoire & mesure XVII (2002).


Nischer, E. C. The Army Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine and Their Modifications up to the Time of the Notitia Dignitatum.”JRS 13 (1923) : 1-55.


Nixon, C. E. V. Constantinus Oriens Imperator: Propaganda and Panegyric. On Reading Panegyric 7 (307).” Historia  42, no. 2 (1993) : 229-246.

________. “The ‘Epiphany’ of the Tetrarchs? An Examination of Mamertinus' Panegyric of 291.” TAPA 111 (1981) : 157-166.


Nock, Arthur Darby. “The Emperor's Divine Comes.” JRS   37 (1947) : 102-116.

Noe, Sydney P.Hoard Evidence and Its Importance.” Hesperia Supplements 8  (1949) : 235-242.

Odahl, Charles. Constantinian Coin Motifs in Ancient Literary Sources.JRMMRA  7 (1986) : 1-15.

________. “Christian Symbols on Constantine's Siscia Helmet Coins.” SAN  7, no. 4 (Fall 1977) : 56-58.

________. “The Celestial Sign on Constantine's Shields at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.” JRMMRA  2 (1981) : 15-28.

________. “The Use of Apocalyptic Imagery in Constantine's Christian Propaganda.” Centerpoint 4, no. 3 (1981) : 9-19.

________.  Eschatological Interpretation of Constantine's Labarum Coin.” SAN 6,no. 3 (1975) :47-51.

________. “A Pagan’s Reaction to Constantine’s Conversion: Religious References in the Trier Panegyric of A.D. 313.” Ancient World 21 (1990) : 45-63.

________. “The Christian Basilicas of Constantinian Rome.” Ancient World  26, no. 1 (1995) : 3-28.


Parker H. M. D.The Legions of Diocletian and Constantine.” JRS  23 (1933) : 175-189.


Pitts, Lynn F. “Relations Between Rome and the German ‘Kings’ on the Middle Danube in the First to Fourth Centuries A.D. JRS  79 (1989) : 45- 58.


Pohlsander, Hans A. Constantia.” Ancient Society 24 (1993) : 151-167.


Ravetz, A. Neutron Activation Analysis of Silver in Some Late Roman Copper Coins.” Archaeometry 6 (1963): 46- 55.

Reece, Richard.Roman Coinage in the Western Empire.” Britannia  4 (1973) : 227-251.

________.Interpreting Roman Hoards.” WorldArch 20, no. 2 (October 1988) : 261-269.

________. “Roman Currency: New Thoughts and Problems.” WorldArch 6, no. 3 (February 1975) : 299-306.

________. “Site-Finds in Roman Britain.” Britannia 26 (1995) : 179-206.


Rees, Roger.Images and Image: A Re-Examination of Tetrarchic Iconography.” GR 40, no. 2 (October 1993) : 181-200.

ReVelle, Charles S. and Kenneth E. Rosing. “Defendens Imperium Romanum: A Classical Problem in Military Strategy.” The American Mathematical Monthly vol 107, no 7 (Aug. - Sep. 2000): 585-594.


Rodgers, Barbara Saylor. “Constantine's Pagan Vision.” Byzantion 50 (1980) : 259-278.


Rostovtzeff, M.Vexillum and Victory.” JRS  32 (1942) : 92-106.


Rowland, Robert. “Saturn, Saturninus, and the Socii.” Classical Philology (Jul 1967): 185-189.


Seeck, O.
Neue und alte Daten zur Geschicte Diocletians und Constantins.” Rheinisches Museum 62 (1907) 489- 535.


Segrè, Angelo. “A Note on the Classes of Roman Officials in the Age of Diocletian.” TAPA 74 (1943): 102-108.


Seston, W.Constantine as a ‘Bishop’.” JRS  37 (1947) : 127-131.

Sharma, V.C. and B.V. Kharbade.Sodium Tripolphosphate; A Safe Sequestering Agent for the Treatment of Excavated Copper Objects.” Studies in Conservation vol 39 issue 1 (Feb 1994): 39- 44.


Shotter, David. “Roman Historians and the Roman Coinage.” GR  25, no. 2 (Oct 1978) : 156-168.

________.Gods, Emperors, and Coins.” GR  26, no. 1 (April 1979) : 48-57.


Smith, R. R. R.The Public Image of Licinius I: Portrait Sculpture and Imperial Ideology in the Early Fourth Century.” JRS  87 (1997) : 170-202.


Speidel, Michael.
  “A Horse Guardsman in the War between Licinius and Constantine.” Chiron 25 (1995) : 83-87.


________. Roman Army Pay Scales.” JRS Vol. 82 (1992): 87-106.


Starr, Chester G.Aurelius Victor: Historian of Empire.” AHR  61, no. 3. (April 1956) : 574-586.

Sutherland, C. H. V. "Some Political Notions in Coin Types Between 294 and 313.” JRS  53 (1963) : 14-20.

________. Denarius and Sestertius in Diocletian's Coinage Reform.” JRS  51 (1961) : 94-97.

________. “Diocletian's Reform of the Coinage: A Chronological Note.” JRS  45 (1955) : 116-118.

________. “The Historical Evidence of Greek and Roman Coins.” GR  9, no. 26 (February 1940) : 65-80.

________.The Intelligibility of Roman Imperial Coin Types.” JRS vol 49, parts 1 & 2 (1959): 46- 55.


________.The Silver Content of Diocletian’s Early Post-Reform Copper Coins.” Archaeometry vol 4, issue 1 (June 1960): 56- 60.


Svoronos, J. N.The Delos Hoard.” Journal international d’ archéologie numismatique  12 (1910) : 153-193.

Syme, R.The Ancestry of Constantine.” Bonner Historia- Augusta- Colloquium 1971 (1974) : 237- 253.

Thompson, E. A.Constantine, Constantius II and the Lower Danube Frontier.Hermes 84 (1956) : 372-381.


Toynbee, J. M. C.Roma and Constantinopolis in Late-Antique Art from 312 to 365.” JRS  37 (1947) : 135-144.

Trivero, Alberto. “I Misteri Isiaci Nei VOTA PVBLICA del IV Secolo.” Monete Antiche anno X, nos. 59 & 60 (2011) : 17- 24 & 22- 32.


Van Sickle, C.E.Diocletian and the Decline of the Roman Municipalities.” JRS vol 28, pt 1 (1938) : 9-18.



Vlachou, C., J. G. McDonnell, and R. C. Janaway. Experimental Investigation of Silvering in Late Roman Coinage.” Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 712 (2002) : 461- 470.


Von Petrikovits, Harald. “Fortifications in the North-Western Roman Empire from the Third to the Fifth Centuries A.D.JRS 61 (1971): 178-218.


Walker, Alan. “Worn and Corroded Coins: Their Importance for the Archaeologist.” Journal of Field Archaeology vol 3, no 3 (1976) : 329-334.



Warmington, B. H.Aspects of Constantinian Propaganda in the Panegyrici Latini.” TAPA 104 (1974) : 371-384.


Wiemer, Hans-Ulrich. “Libanius on Constantine.” CQ  44, no. 2. (1994) : 511-524.


Wright, David H.The True Face of Constantine the Great.” DOP  41 (1987) : 493-507.

Woods, David. “On the Death of the Empress Fausta.” GR 45, no. 1. (April 1998) : 70-86.

________. Numismatic Evidence and the Succession to Constantine I.” Numismatic Chronicle 171 (2011): 187- 196.








Constantine the Great